ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION IN HOUSEKEEPING OPERATIONS

Energy conservation measures for Hotel Industry

DO’S AND DONT’S

FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT

This department consumes approximately 25% of the total energy cost so the opportunities to reduce energy consumption in this area are excellent. Some helpful guidelines are given below.

FOOD PREPARATION – KITCHEN

  1. Determine the preheating time for ovens, grills, boilers, fryers & other cooking equipments. Generally speaking 10 to 20 minutes should be sufficient.
  2. When preheating ovens, set thermostat at the desired temperature. Ensure thermostat controls are operating the properly.
  3. Determine cooking capacity of ovens; use smaller or more energy efficient oven when possible.
  4. Use additional fry units, boilers, oven etc. only for peak business hours.
  5. Load & unload ovens quickly. If an oven door is kept open for a second, then it losses about 1% of its heat.
  6. Cover pots & pan switch lids while cooking.
  7. Turn off cooking & heating units that are not needed.
  8. Oven should not be opened during operation. Food will cook faster and lose less moisture if oven is kept closed.
  9. Frozen food should be thawed in refrigerators. It will thaw easily & reduce power demand on the refrigerator.
  10. When using gas range for full heat condition, the tip of the flame should just touch the bottom of the pan or kettle. Yellow flame is the indication of inefficient, incomplete combustion and wastage of gas. Clean burners, pilot light regularly. If flames are still yellow, have gas-air mixture adjusted.
  11. A blue flame with a distinct inner cone is best. Flame should never flout but should just wipe the surface. Adjust flame until it is entirely blue.
  12. Thoroughly clean pot & pans to ensure there is no carbon build up at the bottom.
  13. Placing foil under range burners & griddles will improve the operational efficiency.
  14. Fryers need to be cleaned & oil filtered at least once a day.
    15. Cooking rang burners should always be smaller than the kettle or pot place on it.
  15. Have broken door hinges and cracks of oven doors attended to immediately.
  16. Turn off Rotary Toaster when not in use. Use pop up toasters on lean timings.
  17. Shut off steam Heater on dishwasher when dishwasher in not in use.
  18. Use hot water only when necessary.

20 In pot washing area fill sink for washing utensils instead of running water.

  1. Cleaning should be done during day hours if possible. Do not use dishwasher till full load of soiled dishes is available.
  2. Turn off lights in the walk – in refrigerators and freezers when not required. Lights not only waste energy but add load to the box.
  3. Close tightly all walk-in doors after operating them.
  4. Allow hot foods to air cool before placing in refrigerators.
  5. Do not store items in front of the refrigerant coils or fans in a manner that restricts air circulation.
  6. Fully stored refrigerators and walk-ins use energy more efficiently than partially stored ones.
  7. Be sure foods requiring refrigeration are promptly placed in storage after delivery.
  8. Turn off supply and exhaust fans in kitchens stores etc. when areas are not in use.
  9. Report and leakage of gas immediately.
  10. Keep records of all break down of equipments to find out accident prone/uneconomical equipment.
  11. Turn on equipment only as needed. Make sure they are turn off at night.
  12. Carefully follow instructions in the user’s guide for all equipments.
  13. Keep equipment and door seals clean and free of debris to prevent energy waste.
  14. Reduce peak loading. Your electrical bill is determined by two factors:-

(a) demand charge (if applicable)

 (b) total consumption in kWh

You may achieve this by:-

(a) Intensive cooking such as baking and roasting during non-peak demand hours.
(b) Use minimum number of electric appliances at a time. Stager their operation.
(c) Try to use electrical appliances between 6 AM to 10 AM or after mid night if possible.

Equipment should be turned on at specific time to a specific temperature and turned off at times when not needed. A 10-15 minutes preheat period is requires only 7 to 15 minutes for pre-heating.

Clean heating elements at least weakly. This may even be done daily if you do high volume frying.

Cooking foods in least volume possible for most economic use of energy.

38 If keeping electric burner on for shorter period is inevitable, when they are not in actual use keep the temperature low until you are ready to cook. This will even prolong the life of burner besides conserving energy.

Avoid turning on gas burners until you are ready to cook.

If possible, fill cooking vessels according to capacity. Large cooking vessel if used for cooking lesser quantity of food will consume more energy.

Use flat bottom pots and pans for maximum heat transfer.

Group kettles and pots on close top ranges.

Turn down heat as soon as food begins to boil and maintain liquids at simmer.

Clear boil overs and spill overs promptly to avoid build-up of carbon deposits which will affect the efficiency of equipment adversely.

Always try to use roasting and baking oven to full capacity for maximum utilization of heat. If possible wait till oven is loaded up to its optimum capacity prior to switching on.

Regular & prompt cleaning of rotary toaster saves energy.

Avoid frequent opening of refrigerator doors. Door opening if planned, saves energy.

Do not allow frosting on refrigerator coils to save energy.

Close & preferably lock ice cuber bins after removing ice for use.

Using hot water for cooking consumes less energy as compared to cold water.

Switching off heater when cooking is over, not only saves energy it is safer as well.

Do not use dishwasher until you have sufficient load

BANQUETS

While air conditioning is on, try to avoid using candles on the table. They add a tremendous heat load.

When renting a space for functions try to fit the space to the size of function. Do not rent a 300 person ball room to 50 people even if the room can be divided. Remembers you are spending almost same on air conditioner of the space.

When setting up for a function, make certain that heating, cooling and lighting are off until ½ hour to 1 hour before function starts. Turn off systems as soon as the function is over. In fact, air conditioning can be turned off even ½ hours before function finishes. Air conditioning effect will stay for ½ hour.

If you have a choice, try to avoid function that requires the addition of many spotlights or other heat producing equipment.

Assign an individual responsible for turning lights on and off.

Keep the light off whenever any function area is vacant or unoccupied.

While Air-conditioning is on ensure that all doors and windows are properly closed.

During winter season try to use outside air for cooling.

Review lighting levels and prepare new standard lamping plans for meetings rooms to reduce unnecessary wastage of energy.

RESTAURANTS

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Reschedule cleaning of area during day light hours.

Avoid using electrical light while setting the table whenever possible.

Turn off air-conditioning ½ hour prior to closing the restaurant.

Keep wall and ceiling properly cleaned for better light reflection.

Turn off lights when not needed.

Review lighting level to provide minimum acceptable lighting level in all food service area.

FRONT OFFICE AND LOBBY

front desk

Front office can play an important role in energy conservation. When occupancy in unfortunately not high, front office should rent room by virtue of their location. In summer, rooms on the east or north sides of the building will be cooler. Also, corner rooms with two outside exposures will be warmer. Rooms close to heat source should also be avoided if possible. This would certainly help reduce air conditioning load and result in saving of energy.

Front office should make sure that the rooms which are not to be rented out during lean period are not air conditioned or ventilated unnecessarily. If any one of these is to be rented. out, air conditioning or ventilation can be started ½ hour before the guest moves in.

Lower all lighting levels during late night and day light hours. Turn off all lights in offices when these are closed.

If possible, instruct shopkeepers to reduce the amount of shop and display lighting. Although, in most cases, shopkeepers do pay for their electric consumption, the lighting load still affects hotels cooling systems.

Lobby, managers should ensure that Lobby Main Entrance doors are not unduly kept opened. A door opening will result in ingress of heat from outside and adversely affect air conditioning.

Lobby Managers, in course of their duty, do take rounds of the property. They on their rounds, should ensure that no unnecessary lights or water tape are left ON by careless staff.

During day light hours reduce electric lighting load in Lobby etc. to minimum to make full use of natural light.

During low occupancy period try to block complete floor. If this is not practicable, attempt should be made to block as far as possible total wings of individual floor.

As soon as guest checks out, Front office should inform Housekeeping so that all lights of the vacant room is switched off at the earliest.

Report broken windowpanes to stop ingress of air.

Inspect public toilets periodically and report leading W.C. and faucets top stop water unnecessary illumination.

HOUSE KEEPING DEAPRTMENT

housekeeping banner

The major space in a hotel is devoted to guest rooms and corridors. Number and variety of ways to conserve energy in these areas are startling. Although the energy conserved in one room or corridor does not seem significant, but when multiplied by 100 or so rooms, it does become significant. Some of the opportunities for Housekeeping Department where they can significantly contribute to energy saving listed below:-

  1. Turn off guest room lights when rooms are not physically occupied.
  2. Use minimum lighting when making up and cleaning rooms. Use natural light whenever possible.
  3. Turn off corridor lights, or reduce it to 50% when natural light is available.
  4. Turn off lights in linen rooms, storage room and maids closets when not in use.
  5. Check your areas for light level. Reduce number of lights if possible. Use lower wattage bulbs wherever possible.
  6. Have lamp shades cleaned at once. Bulb gives more light with clean lampshades.
  7. Keep walls and ceiling walls cleaned for better light reflection.
  8. Switch off music & TV Sets when rooms are not physically occupied.
  9. Turn off HVAC system when rooms are not physically occupied.
  10. Report water leaks immediately
  11. Keep windows closed and curtain on. The ingress of hot air in summer and cold air during winter contribute to very large waste or energy. For example 6’ wide window opened just one inch would allow hot air necessitating 1.76 kwh to cool. This in terms of monetary value, will cost approx. Rs. 1150/- per hour.
  12. Keep room hot water temperature at lowest acceptable limit.
  13. Minimize use of lights during night cleaning by switching on only those lights which are actually required to clean a particular area.
  14. Bellhops may be advised to leave only such lights on which are actually needed by the guest while leaving the room.

LAUNDRY DEPARTMENT

One of the large consumers of water and heat, the hotel laundry is an outlet that can significantly reduce energy consumption with no effect on guest comfort or satisfaction. Some of the important points to achieve desired results are listed below:-

  1. Have lights turned off when not in use.
  2. Periodically clean lamps and lights fixtures.
  3. Clean and wash walls, floors and ceiling
  4. Operate washing machines at full load, partial loads may require same amount water as full loads.
  5. Check and record your water consumption. Compare water consumption daily to find wastages, if any.
  6. Do not leave water taps running.
  7. Consider using cold water detergents. It will greatly reduce energy consumption.
  8. Reduce hot water temperature to 120 o F.
  9. Repair or replace all hot water piping insulation.
  10. All steam line values should be checked for leaks. That is, you should be able to shut off steam to any machine not in use keeping steam supply main open.
  11. If possible use final rinse water for 1st wash.
  12. Reduce time between loads to prevent tumblers from cooling down.
  13. Air line should be checked for leaks.
  14. Periodically clean exhaust duct and blower of lint and dust.
  15. Keep steam pressure at lowest possible level.
  16. Shut off steam valve whenever machine is not being utilised.
  17. Keep radiator coils and fins free from dirt all the times.
  18. Ensure all steam traps in perfect working order.
  19. Keep an eye on the preventive maintenance schedule of all laundry equipments by Engineering Department to ensure timely compliance.
  20. Ensure that Drying tumblers and washing machines are kept clean and free from scale at all times.
  21. Switch off laundry exhaust fans when laundry is closed.
  22. Ensure that extractors are working properly. Incomplete extraction increased load on dryer and consumes more energy for drying.
  23. Reschedule machine operation to reduce peak demand charges.
  24. Inform boiler room when steam is not required so that boilers can be shut down to save fuel.

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

An analysis of Hotels show that approximately 60% of the energy consumed in a property is in the equipment and machinery rooms, boiler rooms, air conditioning rooms, water treatment and pump areas and sewage plants. Engineering Department is responsible for running and maintenance this equipment. They are also concerned with entire building and complex.

Keeping the above in view, it is imperative that the Engineering Department operates these equipments at peak efficiency. Engineering Department can help conserve energy in the following Ways:

  1. By acting as an advisor to various departments to help them achieve their respective Energy Management goals.
  2. By ensuring efficient and economic operation of all the equipments.
  3. They must maintain history card of each machine so that in-efficient and uneconomical machines can be identified and eliminated to save the wasteful uses of energy. This will also help in deciding the preventive maintenance schedule of each machine.

Some guidelines to achieve energy management goals at little or no cost are listed below:-

HVAC SYSTEMS – PLANT ROOM

  1. Turn off HVAC machinery in all unoccupied spaces.
  2. Eliminate or reduce duct air leakage.
  3. While operating chillers, ensure following:-

– As far as possible keep leaving chilled water temperature on the higher side.

– Reduce entering condenser water temperature

– Maintain proper refrigerant charge.

– Eliminate refrigerant and charge.

– Maintain proper flow rate of condenser water

– Operate chillers in proper sequence.

– Operate condenser and cooler pumps in proper sequence.

  1. Lower hot water temperature for heating when outside temperature rises.
  2. When chiller is not operating, make certain that chilled and condenser water pumps are shut down.
  3. Use proper water treatment to prevent fouling or sealing of condensers, cooling towers and piping.
  4. Repair all hot, chilled and condenser water lines, valves and pumps. A considerable quantity of water is lost through leaky pump glands which can be saved easily.
  5. Repair or replace damaged hot or chilled water line insulation.
  6. Check cooling water tower bleed off periodically.
  7. Check efficiency of chiller against manufacturer’s specifications by checking water temperature and pressure drop in and out of chillers and condensers and motor amperage on compressor.
  8. Condenser tubes should be kept clean.
  9. Stop all refrigerant leaks.
  10. Check daily purge operation on chiller for signs of air leaks
  11. Remove algae growth from cooling towers.
  12. Check all belt drives. Replace worn out or frayed belts.
  13. Clean AHU coils and fans periodically, check chilled water sample to know the internal condition of coil. Do periodic cleaning of coil.
  14. AHU filter must be cleaned periodically.
  15. Check all thermostat for correct functioning.

BOILERS

  1. Check Boilers Room for negative air pressure which can reduce combustion efficiency.
  2. Avoid multiple boiler operation. One boiler operating at 80% is more efficient than two at 40%.
  3. Operate boilers at as low steam pressure as possible.
  4. Avoid excessive boiler blow down.
  5. Clean burner nozzle periodically.
  6. Pre-heat the fuel to correct temperature before injection.
  7. Maintain a good water treatment program.
  8. Repair and replace if necessary boiler and flue insulation that is damaged.
  9. Repair and replace all worn or damaged steam and condensate piping insulation.
  10. Insulate all condensate and steam pipe line flanges.
  11. Check and repair all steam traps.
  12. Eliminate all steam leaks.
  13. Check fuel lines for leaks.
  14. Check combustion control in order to maintain maximum efficiency.
  15. Check all safety valves for any leaks.

HEATING

  1. Check and back wash water filtration plant for higher efficiency and reduction in water system scaling.
  2. Check water analysis periodically.
  3. Repair at once all leaks, dripping faucets and shower heads.
  4. Check toiler flush valves for any water leaks.
  5. Lower hot water temperature to 120oF.
  6. Check and adjust swimming pool make up water (not to exceed 10%).
  7. Shut down pool filtration plant when pool is not in use.
  8. Reduce lawn and shrubbery watering to absolute minimum.
  9. Check water regulating valves on water coolers, refrigerant units and ice machines.
  10. Consider sprint loaded self closing water valves in Kitchens.

BUILDING AND GROUNDS 

  1. Seal all exterior windows, doors cracks and openings to reduce outdoor air leaks.
  2. Reduce gap under the doors of air conditioned spaces to minimum.
  3. Check grounds for leaking pipes underground.
  4. Check and repair all door closers.
  5. Make certain all electric connections are tight.
  6. Keep all ‘contacts’ clean.
  7. Check Lighting levels in all Engineering spaces to see if they can be reduced.
    08. Replace all incandescent fixtures with fluorescent and energy efficient lamps like PL-9 or SL-25 etc.
  8. Keep all light shades clean. Use shades that allow more light to pass or reflect.
    10. Do not switch on lights unless necessary.
  9. Arrange schedules for turning or reducing lights in guest corridors, lobby area, function spaces, restaurants, bars, shops, kitchens etc.
  10. Make a house inspection of all departments to see that energy conservation is being observed.

WATER CONSERVATION

Setting a water conservation action plan

1. Carry out a water audit to show where the major water costs are and where savings can be made.
2. Compare total and departmental consumption figures with hotel industry benchmarks to determine the potential for savings.
3. Calculate water used per guest by dividing the total water consumed in guest rooms by the number of guests for that month.
4. Establish realistic goals for each department.
5. Communicate management’s objectives and goals to employees.
6. Ensure participation from the entire workforce and invite staff to put forward their ideas.
7. Check regularly for leaks from cisterns, taps and pipes and make sure that plugs in basins fit properly.
8. Implement a programme that allows guests to opt not to have towels and linens changed every day.
9. Install sensors, low-flow and other water-saving fittings in kitchens, guest bathrooms and public washrooms. Take advantage of any financial incentives being offered by local/national governments to install water-efficient technologies.
10. Divert and capture rainwater (rainwater harvesting) for reuse in the hotel grounds.
11. Establish a monitoring and targeting system and constantly monitor results.
12. Train staff so they understand how to make prudent use of water and how to maintain equipment for optimum energy-efficiency.
13. Develop standard operating procedures and continue to stimulate motivation by giving feedback.
14. Join forces with other hotels and provide mentoring to help them reduce their water consumption.

Staff training

  • Ensure staff are trained to look for leaks, that they report them quickly and problems are responded to swiftly.
  • Use a plug and a bucket when cleaning baths and basins rather than letting the taps (faucets) run.
  • Clean the toilet after cleaning the bath and basin so that the water can be used for a final swill down.
  • Involve staff and ask them to suggest water conservation ideas.

Measurement

  • Install sub-meters to measure specific users of water, such as guest bathrooms.
  • Measure consumption on a monthly basis.
  • Set realistic targets.

Maintenance

  • Conduct regular inspections of taps, showers, toilet mechanisms, overflows from water storage and pipe joints for leaks. Check around the grouting on taps and shower fittings for signs of leaks.
  • Check for a leaking toilet. Add food colouring to the cistern to detect leaks (coloured water will appear in the bowl if the toilet is leaking).
  • Check that plugs are fitted to basins and that they produce an effective seal.

Guest education

  • Communicate to guests the importance of local freshwater resources and provide opportunities to allow guests to use water wisely.
  • Encourage guests to shower rather than bath.
  • Suggest guests do not leave the tap running when brushing their teeth and they half-fill the sink.
  • Invite them to reuse their towels and linens by opting not to have them changed every day.

Fittings

  • Install the latest, most water-efficient fittings. See “Water-saving technologies”.
  • Ensure machines are fully loaded before use.
  • Wash small quantities in a 5kg machine.
  • Ensure that all water inlet valves are closing properly.
  • Check for leaking dump valves.
  • Minimise the rinse without reducing quality.
  • Consider using “intermediate extraction” between rinse operations.
  • Consider the reuse of water from previous rinse cycles for the first wash of the next cycle by installing temporary holding tanks.
  • Check that level controls on water reuse tanks are working properly.
  • 500-room-plus hotels could consider installing a continuous batch washer (CBW), which uses all the rinse water for pre-washing and main suds operation.
  • Ensure that the water flow rates on tunnel washers and CBWs are adjusted to the manufacturer’s recommended setting.
  • When buying washing machines, ensure it has a good water consumption rating.
  • Consider using ozone laundry systems. These inject ozone into the water, which works in conjunction with the laundry chemicals to provide a more efficient wash, reducing energy and water use through shorter cycles.
  • Monitor water use and establish benchmarks.

A towel and linen programme
A towel and linen programme can help you make significant water savings and reduce energy consumption, detergent and the need for waste water treatment. Thousands of hotels already offer guests the option to reuse towels and/or bed linen. Intercontinental Hotels Group (IHG) estimates that its towel re-use scheme has saved 199m litres (52.5m US gallons) of water a year in its 22 US properties alone.

It can also reduce your costs. As well as saving water, it means less wear on fabrics, prolonging their life, and saves housekeeping staff time.

  • Ensure there is a towel rail in the bathroom for guests to hang their towels for reuse.
  • Ensure all staff are aware of the programme and the reasons for it. If a card is included in the guest bathroom suggesting that the guest uses them again, housekeeping staff must follow the correct procedure.
  • The wording on the in-room card should include clear instructions and inspire guests to conserve resources rather than giving the impression the hotel is simply reducing costs. If you leave a questionnaire in the room, include a section on your towel and linen policy.

Robert Cialdini, professor of psychology and marketing at Arizona State University and one of the most quoted social psychologists, carried out research to test which types of signs would most encourage hotel visitors to reuse their towels. Three cards used a version of the typical environmental appeal. A fourth card added true information that the majority of guests reused their towels at least once during their stay. The final message was the most successful, increasing towel reuse by over 28%. Cialdini concluded that when people are uncertain about a course of action, they tend to look to those around them to guide their decisions and actions, a principle he calls “social proof”.

“In most cases, for an organisation to boost effectiveness by 28%, some expensive steps have to be taken; typically, organisational structure, focus, or personnel must be charged,” explains Cialdini. “In this instance, however, none of that was necessary. All that was required was to convey the facts about the preferred behaviour of the majority… What’s most interesting to me is that the most effective strategy was entirely costless to the hotel. But I’ve never seen it used by any hotel room in any city.”

Swimming pools
In a large hotel, a swimming pool can increase freshwater consumption by as much as 10% so, before installing one, consider carefully whether a pool is a necessity for guests, particularly if water is scarce locally.

  • Design the system so that you can capture and reuse backwash water to irrigate the grounds.
  • When cleaning the area around the pool, use a brush and pan to collect debris rather than hosing.
  • Cover the pool when not in use to avoid water evaporation.
  • Fit water-saving showerheads, dual flush or water-efficient toilet cisterns and push-button taps in all changing facilities.
  • Check the water meter last thing at night and first thing in the morning to detect leaks.
  • In coastal areas, a reverse osmosis (RO) plant is an option for converting seawater for use in pools. However, acids and caustic substances are required to keep these systems clean, creating a waste stream that must be neutralised before discharged. Care should also be taken with siting. Most good RO systems incorporate waste neutralisation, making the process simple and efficient.

Spas

  • To detect leaks, check the water meter last thing at night and first thing in the morning and carry out visual checks.
  • Fit water-saving showerheads, dual-flush toilet cisterns and push-button taps in all facilities.
  • Opportunities for capturing and rescuing spa pool water are limited due to the concentration of chlorine or bromine. Expert advice should be sought if you plan to redirect backwash water to irrigate the grounds or install a greywater recycling system for toilets.

It makes sense to use water resources sensibly in your grounds, even where water is plentiful.

  • Use rainwater harvesting techniques to divert rainwater from roofs and gutters into storage tanks.
  • If possible, use greywater from baths and sinks for irrigation. Consider installing a treatment system that will enable you to use treated black water from toilets in the gardens.
  • A well-designed and controlled irrigation system will deliver water when and where it is needed on a regular basis and will help plants to thrive.
  • Do not use hoses for watering plants and avoid sprinklers on lawns.
  • Avoid using high-pressure jets to clean paving.
  • Condition clay soils with powdered or liquid gypsum to improve water penetration.
  • Using your own organic compost will add nutrients and help retain moisture in the soil. You can also add polymers that help retain moisture.
  • Match the choice of plant material to the climate, avoid laying lawns where water is scarce and select the type of grass carefully.
  • Remove weeds regularly from garden beds as they compete with other plants.
  • If a water feature is essential, give thought to the size, design and how quickly the water will evaporate.

Toilets
Installing waterless urinals can save up to nearly 230,000 litres (60,000 US gallons) annually per urinal. Other techniques include using include passive infra-red devices, which initiate a flush when they detect activity or flush at shorter intervals at busy times. Timers that flush more frequently at peak times are another option, as is a sleeve-based urinal system, with a disposable sleeve to remove odours and flushes four to six times a day.

Switching to low-flow or low-flush toilets produces big water savings – newer designs typically consume around six litres (1.6 US gallons), compared to 26 litres (7 US gallons) per flush in older models. Toilets with a dual-flush can save water by enabling guests to select a full or half-flush. Other water-saving toilet technologies include a cistern volume-adjusting device such as bricks, plastic containers, bags filled with water (“hippos”) or pebbles in the cistern. Finally, composting toilets, which do not require water, are suitable in remote areas and ecologically sensitive places where there is no/poor infrastructure.

Taps (Faucets)
Changing standard taps on sinks to automatic, restricted or aerated models will also make significant water savings. Electronic controls can be retrofitted or installed and save up to 70% of water as well as proportional savings in heating, water treatment and sewage.

Manual valve taps can be upgraded with either flow restrictors or aerators. Flow restrictors are washer-like discs that are installed in the tap head and reduce the flow of water by up to 9.5 litres (2.5 US gallons) per minute. Aerators replace the tap head screen, lowering flow by adding air to the water stream and saving 12 litres (3.2 US gallons) per tap per day. Self-closing percussion or push taps, which close automatically after up to 30 seconds are particularly suitable for cloakroom facilities in public areas. These can also be activated by passive infra-red sensors.

Showers and baths
Low-flow showerheads, such as those that combine air so the pressure feels strong, can result in a cut of 95 litres (25 US gallons) of water in a 10-minute shower. In the US, low-flow showerheads cost between $15-$30, are easy to install, and return their investment in a few months. A study by the UK’s Environment Agency found that poor shower facilities made customers more likely to take baths.

In bathrooms, select the size of baths and basins carefully as it will have a dramatic effect on water consumption. Even using one litre less per bath per guest per year will yield huge savings. Also consider installing programmable controls to dictate the temperature and maximum fill level.

Low-cost water conservation devices and expected water savings

Type of water-saving deviceExpected water savings (%)Cost (Euros)
Temporised taps30-4022-124 (average: 84)
Water-saving devices for traditional taps406
Water-saver in toilets503-24

Source: World Wide Fund For Nature

Hi-tech filtrations systems
These allow hotels to reuse virtually all of the water that is normally lost to the sewage system. Dutch Water Group, a company that specialises in water solutions for the hotel industry, has pioneered a chemicals-free bioreactor system that combines a biological process and membrane filtration. It allows hoteliers to reuse 99.9% of drainswater for irrigation, air-conditioning and laundry purposes. The filtration system does produce a “sludge” but this is compressed and only needs removing on average twice a year. reverse osmosis system works by pumping seawater under extremely high pressure through a very fine membrane to remove salt, bacteria, proteins and pathogens. It is then ready to drink safely.

Horizontal sprinklers
The latest models prevent water being wasted through evaporation, overspray and water run-off by watering turf on the surface in a bottom-up model rather than the typical sprinkler/top-down model. For example, the Jardinier Corporation’s Surface Flow system uses a series of pipettes snapped into a larger, horizontal pipe beneath the soil’s surface.

Pool drainage
Eliminate the need to drain a swimming pool and waste water with an Aquazerve unit that attaches to a pool pump to refresh the pool water every day, eradicating the need to drain the pool.

Recycled rain barrels
You can now buy water butts, such as those from Rainwater Solutions, made from 100% recycled materials with no pumps or mechanical devices and built-in overflow ports and screen traps to keep our mosquitoes.

Amit Kumar
Amit Kumarhttps://hmhelp.in
Hii! Welcome to My digital home, I am Amit – an almost no-code generalist, helping businesses with their online presence using WordPress and other tools and simplifying some of their operations with ideas and automation. A psychology and philosophy geek by interest and a graduate in Hospitality Management. I founded hmhelp during college, which got me into WordPress. I am a highly motivated and results-oriented professional with a proven track record of success in the hospitality industry. I’m also a Digital Marketing Enthusiast with significant academic and practical experience managing digital content across multiple platforms. Skilled at SEO optimization, developing digital content for social media platforms, I offer extensive knowledge of multiple software programs, strong attention to detail, and extraordinary communication skills. If you are interested in talking about any of the topics I have mentioned on my website, you are in the right place. You can contact me or learn more about what I do. You can also connect with me on social networks.

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