Air pollution, Noise pollution, Thermal pollution


Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere.

Sources Of Air Pollution 

  •  Household combustion devices.
  •  Motor vehicles.
  •  Industrial facilities.
  •  Forest fires

Pollutants causing Air Pollution

  •  Include particulate matter. (Particulate matter is the sum of all solid and liquid particles suspended in air many of which are hazardous. This complex mixture includes both organic and inorganic particles, such as dust, pollen, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets.)
  • Carbon monoxide.
  • Nitrogen dioxide
  • Sulfur dioxide

Harmful effects of Air Pollution

  • Effects on cardiovascular health
  • Effects on breathing (asthma).
  • Links to cancer
  • Effects on children

How to control air pollution?

  •  Maintaining a healthy distance between the industrial and residential areas.
  • The chimneys should be constructed tall in size so that the emissions must be released higher up in the environment
  • The sulfur must be removed after burning.
  • The gasoline must have anti-knocking agents.
  • The mining area should be planted with trees.
  • The coal fuel should be replaced with gas fuel to control air pollution. •
  • The automobiles must be designed with an emission control system.
  • The wastes must be removed and recycled in the industrial plants and refineries.
  • Plants like pine and Ribes need to be planted to metabolize the nitrogen oxides and other pollutants.
  • Timely servicing of the car helps to keep it in a good condition, and also minimizes fuel exhaustion
  • Using public transportation helps to prevent air pollution
  • Using alternative energy sources like solar energy, hydroelectric energy, and wind energy


  • Noise pollution is displeasing or excessive noise that may disrupt the activity or balance of human or animal life.
  • Noise means disgust or discomfort hearing from environment.

Sources of Noise Pollution

  •  Machines.
  •  Transportation systems.
  •  Motor vehicles.
  •  Aircrafts.
  • Trains.
  • Poor urban planning.

Effects of Noise Pollution

  • Noise pollution affects both health and behavior.
  • Unwanted sound (noise) can damage psychological health.
  • Noise pollution can cause
  • Annoyance
  • Aggression .
  • Hypertension .
  • High stress levels .
  • Hearing loss.
  • Sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.
  • Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss.
  • Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstrate significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers.


  • Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.
  • It is typically caused by industrial activity.
  • Agricultural chemicals.
  • Improper disposal of waste. Soil Contaminating Chemical
  • Petroleum hydrocarbons.
  • Poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.
  • Pesticides
  • Lead and Other heavy metals.

How to control soil pollution? 

  • Limit the use of fertilizers and pesticides
  • Awareness about biological control methods and their implementation
  • The grazing must be controlled and forest management should be done properly
  • The afforestation and reforestation must take place
  • Proper preventive methods like shields should be used in areas of wind erosion and wind breaks
  • Treating Wastes of industries.
  • Treating nuclear waste.
  • Proper disposing of plastics and other garbage materials.

Thermal Pollution 

  • Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature.
  •  A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers.
  • When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature, the sudden change in temperature decreases oxygen supply and affects ecosystem composition.
  • Fish and other organisms adapted to particular temperature range can be killed by an abrupt change in water temperature (either a rapid increase or decrease) known as “thermal shock.”

Solid waste and its management

Solid Waste

Solid waste is any non liquid, non soluble material ranging from municipal garbage to industrial wastes . Solid waste includes

  • Garbage
  • Rubbish
  • Demolition products
  • Sewage treatment residue
  • Dead animals
  • Manure and other discarded material

Solid waste poses serious threat to the environment globally.

Types of Solid Waste


  • Biodegradable wastes are such waste materials which are and can be degraded by natural factors like microbes (e.g. bacteria, fungi and few more), abiotic elements like temperature, UV, oxygen, etc.
  • Some examples of such wastes are food materials, kitchen wastes and other natural wastes.
  • Microorganisms and other abiotic factors together break down complex substances into simpler organic matters which eventually suspend and fade into soil.
  • The whole process is natural which can be rapid or slow. Therefore the environmental issues and risks caused by biodegradable wastes are low.


  • Unlike biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable cannot be easily handled.
  • Non-biodegradable wastes are those who cannot be decomposed or dissolved by natural agents.
  • They remain on earth for thousands of years without any degradation. Hence the threat caused by them is also more critical.
  • A notable example is the plastics which are a commonly used material in almost every field.
  • To give these plastics a long lasting effect, improved quality plastics are being put to use. This made them more temperature resistant and more durable even after use.
  • Other examples are cans, metals, and chemicals for agricultural and industrial purposes. They are the main causes of air, water and soil pollution and diseases like cancer.

Solid Waste Management in Hotels and Restaurants

  • Huge volume of solid waste is generated everyday in a hotel. Many of them, particularly organic wastes, comes from kitchen and restaurant residues.
  • Waste paper and other consumables from the other departments also form  substantial amount of solid waste.
  • They pose a huge environmental and sanitation problem if not collected and disposed properly.
Amit Kumar
Amit Kumar
Hii! Welcome to My digital home, I am Amit – an almost no-code generalist, helping businesses with their online presence using WordPress and other tools and simplifying some of their operations with ideas and automation. A psychology and philosophy geek by interest and a graduate in Hospitality Management. I founded hmhelp during college, which got me into WordPress. I am a highly motivated and results-oriented professional with a proven track record of success in the hospitality industry. I’m also a Digital Marketing Enthusiast with significant academic and practical experience managing digital content across multiple platforms. Skilled at SEO optimization, developing digital content for social media platforms, I offer extensive knowledge of multiple software programs, strong attention to detail, and extraordinary communication skills. If you are interested in talking about any of the topics I have mentioned on my website, you are in the right place. You can contact me or learn more about what I do. You can also connect with me on social networks.

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