Computer Fundamentals – Theory

Computer Fundamentals

Definition of a Computer:

  • A computer is an electronic device that operates under the control of a set of instructions that is stored in its memory unit.
  •  A computer is a collection of hardware and software components that help you complete many different tasks.

A computer can be more accurately defined as an electronic device that takes data as input, stores and processes it and displays the output according to the given instructions.

Data processing Concept

I-P-O Cycle –

CPU – 

  •  The cycle of activities performed by a computer is referred to as the Input- Process-Output cycle or the I-P-O cycle
  •  A computer consists of several components

Each component participates in either one of the input, process, or Output phases


A computer usually accepts input in the form of data. Data is the raw material. Data refers to numerical (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,0), alphabetical (A,B,C,D ……Z) and special characters (e.g., @,#,$,%,^,&,!). A set of numbers could be examples of data. OR

Data is a word of Latin used to describe a collection of natural phenomena like numbers, characters, images or symbols, in a very broad sense.

  •  Information – Information is the finished product (manipulation of raw facts). Information refers to data in a particular context, which helps us understand facts. Example- +91(011) 2555-1212 is a telephone no. of a directory. It includes country code 91, an area code 011, a telephone exchange 2555 and a number within the exchange 1212.


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