External and Internal command in Dos

DOS Internal and External Commands of Dos

External and internal command in dos are instructions to perform tasks on files and directories very useful to Windows users. DOS internal and external commands are case insensitive. And as you already know, file is the area where we store group of information or data, and collection of group of files is called a directory.

In MS-DOS the file name follow 8dot3 format and is divided into two parts – primary name and secondary name. Primary name is up to 8 characters long and secondary name is up to 4 characters with dot. For example, in the file-name Logo.jpg, Logo is the primary name and .jpg is the secondary name. Secondary names are fixed for particular type of file, meaning for system files the secondary name is designated as .sys, for text files it is .txt and so on. To name a file or directory special characters like < > , . / * ? | & Space are not allowed. Here is the list of some of the important types of files with their default secondary names:

Text file.txt
Command file.com
System file.sys
Programme file.prg
Database file.dbm
Library file.lib
Batch file.bat
Executable file.exe
Dos Commands

DOS Commands are divided into 2 types:

  1. Internal Commands in Dos are : internal commands of dos are for performing basic operations on files and directories and they do not need any external file support. These DOS commands are called internal commands of dos because their code is included in COMMAND.COM, the DOS and Windows 9x command processor. Since COMMAND.COM is loaded into primary memory when DOS or Windows 9x is booted, the internal commands of dos are always in memory and can be executed at any time without first being fetched from disk.
  2. External Commands of Dos : These external commands of dos are for performing advanced tasks and they do need some external file support as they are not stored in COMMAND.COM

There are also Batch commands or Batch files which are text files that contain a list of internal and/or external commands which are executed in sequence when the batch file is executed. AUTOEXEC.BAT gets executed automatically on booting.

In MS-DOS, keyboard shortcuts involving handy ones like Functional keys, arrows, pipe character (” | “), asterisk (*), ?, [] and ESC are of great help for recalling to searching to clearing command line etc., Here are few of them:

  • UP (↑) and DOWN (↓) arrows recall previously entered dos commands.
  • ESC clears the present command line. It abandons the currently construct command and the next prompt appears.
  • F1 or → retypes one character at a time from the last command entry from the current cursor position.
  • F2 retypes all characters from the last command entry up to the one identical to your next keystroke. It asks you to enter char to copy up to and retypes the last command up to that char.
  • F3 retypes all remaining characters from the last command entry.
  • F4 stores all characters beginning at the first match with your next keystroke and ending with the last command entry.
  • F5 or F8 keys give all the previously typed commands.
  • F6 places a special end-of-file code at the end of the currently open file. Sometimes referred to as Ctrl+z or ^z.
  • F7 key displays command history and ALT+F7/ESC hides it.
  • F9 is used to select a command by number. Just enter the command number and it fetches the command line for you.
  • Pipe character (” | “) combines several series of commands or programs inter-dependent.
  • Name enclosed within [] indicate a sub-directory.
  • Asterisk (*) is used to represent zero or more any characters.
  • ? is used to present zero or single character.

MS-DOS Internal and External commands of dos perform tasks like:

  • Manage files and directories
  • Maintain Disks
  • Configure Hardware and Networking
  • Optimize the use of memory
  • Customize MS-DOS

You can also check : System software in Computer | Basics of MS dos

External and internal commands of Dos

The Benefits of External Commands of DOS are

1. Enhanced Functionality

External commands empower you to perform tasks that may not be possible with built-in DOS commands alone. They provide additional features and functionalities that cater to specific needs, making your computing experience more comprehensive and versatile.

2. Time Efficiency

By leveraging external commands, you can execute complex operations swiftly and effectively. These commands often automate repetitive tasks, reducing the time and effort required. With a few simple commands, you can accomplish in seconds what would otherwise take minutes or even hours.

Internal And External Commands in Dos

dos internal command
dos internal command
ansi.sysDefines functions that change display graphics, control cursor movement, and reassign keys.File
appendCauses MS-DOS to look in other directories when editing a file or running a command.External command of dos
arpDisplays, adds, and removes arp information from network devices.External
assignAssign a drive letter to an alternate letter.External
assocView the file associations; is an internal command in dosInternal command of dos
atSchedule a time to execute commands or programs.External command of dos
atmadmLists connections and addresses seen by Windows ATM call manager.Internal
attribDisplay and change file attributes.External
batchRecovery console command that executes a series of commands in a file.Recovery
bcdeditModify the boot configuration data store.External
bootcfgRecovery console command that allows a user to view, modify, and rebuild the boot.ini file.Recovery
breakEnable and disable Ctrl+C feature internal command in dosInternal
caclsView and modify file ACL’s. External dos commandsExternal
callCalls a batch file from another batch file.Internal
cdChanges directories.Internal
chcpSupplement the international keyboard and character set information.External
chdirChanges directories.Internal command in dos
chkdskCheck the hard drive running FAT for errors is an External dos commandExternal
chkntfsCheck the hard drive running NTFS for errors.External
choiceSpecify a listing of multiple options within a batch file.External
clipRedirect command line output to the Windows clipboard is an External dos commandsExternal
clsClears the screen internal command in dosInternal
cmdOpens the command interpreter.Internal
colorChange the foreground and background color of the MS-DOS window.Internal
commandOpens the command interpreter. internal command in dosInternal
compCompares files.External
compactCompresses and uncompress files.External
controlOpen Control Panel icons from the MS-DOS prompt.External
convertConvert FAT to NTFS.External
copyCopy one or more files to an alternate location.Internal
cttyChange the computer’s input/output devices.Internal
dateView or change the systems date.Internal
debugDebug utility to create assembly language programs to modify hardware settings.External
defragRe-arrange the hard drive to help with loading programs.External
delDeletes one or more files. Internal
deleteRecovery console command that deletes a file.Internal
deltreeDeletes one or more files or directories is an external dos commands.External
dirList the contents of one or more directory.Internal
disableRecovery console command that disables Windows system services or drivers.Recovery
diskcompCompare a disk with another disk.External
diskcopyCopy the contents of one disk and place them on another disk.External
doskeyCommand to view and execute commands that were ran in the past.External
dosshellA GUI to help with early MS-DOS users.External
driverqueryDisplay a list of installed device drivers.External
drivparmAn internal command in dos Enables overwrite of original device drivers.Internal
echoDisplays messages and enables and disables echo.Internal
editView and edit files.External command of dos
edlinView and edit files.External
emm386Load extended memory manager.External
enableRecovery console command to enable a disable service or driver.Recovery
endlocalStops the localization of the environment changes enabled by the setlocal command.Internal
eraseErase files from the computer.Internal
exitExit from the command interpreter.is an internal command in dos.Internal
expandExpand a Microsoft Windows file back to its original format is External dos commandsExternal
extractExtract files from the Microsoft Windows cabinets.External
fasthelpDisplays a listing of MS-DOS commands and information about them.External
fcCompare files.External
fdiskSetup drive by create and managing partitions on the hard drive.External
findSearch for text within a file is internal command in dosExternal
findstrSearches for a string of text within a file.External
fixbootWrites a new boot sector.Recovery
fixmbrWrites a new boot record to a disk drive.Recovery
forBoolean used in batch files.Internal
formatCommand to erase and prepare a disk drive.External
ftpCommand to connect and operate on an FTP server.External
fTypeDisplays or modifies file types used in file extension associations.Recovery
gotoMoves a batch file to a specific label or location internal command in dosInternal
graftablShow extended characters in graphics mode.External
helpDisplay a listing of commands and brief explanation.External
ifAllows for batch files to perform conditional processing.Internal
ifshlp.sys32-bit file manager.External
ipconfigNetwork command to view network adapter settings and assigned values.External
keybChange layout of keyboard.External
labelChange the label of a disk drive.External
lhLoad a device driver in to high memory.Internal
listsvcRecovery console command that displays the services and drivers.Recovery
loadfixLoad a program above the first 64 k.External commands of dos
loadhighLoad a device driver in to high memory.Internal
lockLock the hard drive.Internal
logoffLogoff the currently profile using the computer.External
logonRecovery console command to list installations and enable administrator login.Recovery
mapDisplays the device name of a drive.Recovery
mdCommand to create a new directory.Internal
memDisplay memory on system.External
mkdirCommand to create a new directory.Internal
mklink internal command in dos Creates a symbolic link.Internal command in dos
modeModify the port or display settings.External
moreDisplay one page at a time.External
moveMove one or more files from one directory to another directory.Internal
msavEarly Microsoft virus scanner.External
msdDiagnostics utility.External
mscdexUtility used to load and provide access to the CD-ROM.External
nbtstatDisplays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT.External
netUpdate, fix, or view the network or network settings.External
netshConfigure dynamic and static network information from MS-DOS.External
netstatDisplay the TCP/IP network protocol ghostwriting agentur statistics and information.External
nlsfuncLoad country specific information.External
nslookupLook up an IP address of a domain or host on a network.External
pathView and modify the computer’s path location.Internal
pathpingView and locate locations of network latency.External
pauseCommand used in batch files to stop the processing of a command.Internal
pingTest and send information to another network computer or network device.External
popdChanges to the directory or network path stored by the pushd command.Internal
powerConserve power with computer portables.External
printPrints data to a printer port.External
promptView and change the MS-DOS prompt.Internal
pushdStores a directory or network ghostwriter österreich path in memory so it can be returned to at any time.Internal
qbasicOpen the QBasic.External
rdRemoves an empty directory.Internal
renRenames a file or directory.Internal
renameRenames a file or directory.Internal
rmdirRemoves an empty directory.Internal
robocopyA robust file copy command for the Windows command line.External
routeView and configure Windows network route tables.External
runasEnables a user to run a program as a different user.External
scCommunicate with the Service ghostwriter schweiz Control Manager and services.External
scandiskRun the ScanDisk utility.External
scanregScan registry and recover registry from errors.External
setChange one variable or string to another.Internal
setlocalEnables local environments to be changed without affecting anything else.Internal
setverChange MS-DOS version to trick older MS-DOS programs.External
shareInstalls support for file sharing and locking capabilities.External
shiftChanges the position of replaceable parameters in a batch program.Internal
shutdownShutdown the computer from the MS-DOS prompt.External
smartdrvCreate a disk cache in conventional memory or extended memory.External
sortSorts the input and displays the output to the screen.External
startStart a separate window in Windows from the MS-DOS prompt.Internal
substSubstitute a directory on your computer for another drive letter.External
switchesRemove add functions from MS-DOS.Internal
sysTransfer system files to disk drive.External
telnetTelnet to another computer or device from the prompt.External
timeView or modify the system time.Internal
titleChange the title of their MS-DOS window.Internal
tracertVisually view a network packets route across a network.External
treeView a visual tree of the hard drive.External
typeDisplay the contents of a file.Internal
undeleteUndelete a file that was deleted.External
unformatUnformat a hard drive.External
unlockUnlock a disk drive.Internal
verDisplay the version information.Internal
verifyEnables or disables the feature to determine if files were written properly.Internal
volDisplays the volume information about the designated drive.Internal
xcopyCopy multiple files, directories, or drives from one location to another.External commands of dos
Dos Internal and External Commands

Keywords : Internal command in dos are, dos internal command, external command of dos, internal and external dos commands, external commands.

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