Fund Flow Statement


The term ‘fund’ has been defined and interpreted differently by different experts. Broadly the term ‘fund’ refers to all the financial resources of the company. On the other extreme, fund has been understood as ‘cash’ only. According to the International Accounting Standard No. 7, the term generally refers to cash, to
working capital and to cash and cash equivalents (long term financial sources).

A) Fund means cash: Under this concept, the term “funds” is used only in the sense of cash and bank balance. Here, only the changes in cash and bank are considered. Hence, the statement is called “Cash Flow statement.
This statement aims at listing the various items which bring about changes in the cash balance between two balance sheet dates. Cash planning becomes useful for control purposes. Since cash is considered as short term assets, they are subjected to short term fluctuations. A delay in making payment to suppliers and a provision of one month’s credit for making a payment of land purchases may show sufficient cash flow. They may reflect a satisfactory position, but it is not a reality. Therefore, cash equivalent concept of fund is useful only for short term financial planning and not for long term. Thus cash and bank is one part of fund.

B) Fund means Working Capital: Working capital is the excess of current assets over current liabilities. It means working capital = Current asserts – current liabilities. It is an alternative measure of the changes in the financial position. All those transactions which increase or decrease working capital are included in this statement. It excludes all such items which do not affect the working capital. The working capital concept of funds is in conformity with normal accounting procedures. Hence, a funds flow statement based on this concept fits well with the other statements. Moreover, working capital is also a measure of short term liquidity of the firm. Therefore, an analysis of factors bringing about a change in the
amount of net working capital is useful for decision making by shareholders, creditors and management. Due to these reasons, the working capital approach to funds is more useful than the cash approach.
195 The operating cycle of working capital (working capital flow) is as follow:

C) Fund means total financial resources: The term “funds” is very often used in the sense of useful financial resources also. Cash approach and working capital approach both are incomplete and inadequate to the extent that they omit a few major financial and investment transactions.
Such items do not affect net working capital. But, if they are included, they would certainly provide qualitative information for the decision making, For example issuing equity shares and debentures for purchase of buildings or assets shall not have any effect on the working capital. But it is a significant financial transaction that should be disclosed. Therefore, this concept seems to be the best approach to disclose the changes in the financial position as compared to other concepts. It is in conformity with
the statutory regulations and legal requirements.


The term “Flow of Funds” refers to changes or movement of funds or changes in working capital in the normal course of business transactions. The changes in working capital may be in the form of inflow of working capital or outflow of working capital. In other words, any increase or decrease in working capital
when the transactions take place is called as “Flow of Funds.” If the components of working capital results in increase of the fund, it is known as Inflow of Fund or Sources of Fund. Similarly, if the components of working capital effects in decreasing the financial position it is treated as Outflow of Fund. For example, if
the fund raised by way of issue of shares will be taken as a source of fund or inflow of fund. This transaction results in increase of the financial position. Like this, the fund used for the purchase of machinery will be taken as application or use of fund or outflow of fund, because it stands to reduce the fund position. Increase the funds while others decrease the funds. Some may not make any change in the funds position. In case a transaction results in increase of funds, it will be termed as a “sources of funds”. In case a transaction results in decrease of funds it will be taken as an application or use of funds. In case a transaction does not make any change in the funds position, it is said that it is a non-fund transaction.

According to R.N. Anthony, “Fund Flow is a statement prepared to indicate the increase in cash resources and the utilization of such resources of a business during the accounting period.”

According to Smith Brown, “Fund Flow is prepared in summary form to indicate changes occurring in items of financial condition between two different balance sheet dates.”

No Flow of Funds:

Some transactions may not make any movement or changes in the fund position. Such transactions are involved within the business concern. Like the transaction which involves both between current assets and current liabilities and between non-current assets and non-current liabilities and hence do not result in the flow of funds. For example, conversion of shares in to debenture. Such transaction  involves between non-current accounts only and this activity does not effect in increase or decrease of the working capital position.


It is a statement showing the movement of funds into and out of business. In other words it is a statement showing sources and application of fund. A fund flow statement deals with the financial resources required for running the business activities. It explains how were the funds obtained and how were they
A fund flow statement matches the funds raised and funds applied during a particular period. The sources and applications of fund may be of capital as well as of revenue nature. A fund flow statements provide a meaningful link between the balance sheets at the beginning and at the end of the period and profit and
loss account of the period. In view of recognized importance of capital inflows and outflows which often involve large amount of money should be reported to stake holders, the fund flow statement is devised.
In the words of Dr. Shailesh Ransariya, “Funds flow statement is a modern technique of analyzing financial statement. Fund flow statement shows as to where have the funds come from and where have they been used during the accounting period. It helps in analyzing the movement of funds of a firm between the two balance sheet dates.”

As per Foulk point of view “A statement of sources and applications of fund is a technical device deigned to analyze the changes in the financial condition of a business enterprise between two dates.”
In the words of Anthony, “The fund flow statement describes the sources from which additional funds were derived and the uses to which these sources were put.”

The I.C.W.A. in glossary of management accounting terms defines fund flow statement as “a statement prospective or retrospective, setting out the sources and applications of the funds of an enterprise. The purpose of this statement is to indicate clearly the requirement of funds and how they are proposed to be raised and the efficient utilization and application of the same.”


The main objectives of the fund flow statement are:
(1) Helpful in finding the answer to some important financial question:-
A fund flow statement is prepared to give satisfactory answer to the following question:-
(a) What have been the main source and application of funds during the period?
(b) How much funds have been generated from business operations?
(c) Where did the profits go?
(d) Why where dividends not larger?
(e) How was it possible to distribute dividends in excess of current earning or in the presence of net loss for the period?
(f) Why the net current assets are up even though there is a net loss for the period?
(g) How was the expansion in plant and equipment financed?
(h) How was the repayment of long term debt accomplished?
(i) How was the increase in working capital financed?
(2) Helpful in financial analysis:- A fund flow statement provides a complete analysis of the financial position of a firm.
(3) It provides more reliable figures of profit and loss of the business:- It gives much more reliable figure of the profits of the business than the figures shown by P/L account because the figure of profit shown by P/L account is affected by the personal decision of management in deciding the amount of
depreciation and other adjustments regarding the writing off preliminary expanses etc.

(4) It enables to know whether the funds have been properly used:– The funds flow statement enables the management to know whether the funds have been properly used in purchasing various assets or repaying loans etc.
(5) Helpful in proper management of working capital:- While managing working capital in a business, it becomes essential to ensure that it should neither be excessive nor inadequate. A fund flow statement indicates the excessiveness or inadequacy in working capital.
(6) Helps in preparation of budget for the next period:- A fund flow statement is prepared for next year, it will enable the management to plan its financial resources properly. The firm will know how much funds it requires, how much the firm can manage internally and how much it should arrange from outside source. This is helpful in preparing the budgets for the future period.
(7) It helps a firm in borrowing operations:- A fund flow statement prepared for the future period indicates whether the company will have sufficient funds to repay the interest & loans in time.
(8) Helpful in determining dividend policy: – Sometimes, there may be sufficient profit but the distribution of dividend may not be possible due to its adverse effect on the liquidity and working capital of the business. in such cases a funds flow statement help in leading whether to distribute the
dividend or not because a funds flow statement will reveal from where and how much funds can be managed for distributing the dividends.
(9) Useful to shareholders:- Shareholders also get information about the financial policies of the enterprise with the help of fund flow statement.


Since a fund flow statement describes the varies sources and uses of funds, it is imperative that one should know the varies sources and uses of funds:
Sources of funds:
Generally funds are derived from:
1. Operating of business i.e. operating income
2. Income from investment
3. Sale of assets
4. Sale of long term investments
5. Contribution of share holders
6. Increase in long term liabilities, e.g., issue of debentures
7. Gifts, damages awarded in legal action etc.

Uses (Applications) of funds:

Generally funds are utilized to:
8. Operating loses
9. Repayment of long term loan and debentures
10. Redemption of preference share capital
11. Payment of cash dividends
12. Purchase of fixed assets
13. Purchase of long term investments
Loss of cash by embezzlement costs in legal action etc.


Fund flow statement is a useful tool in the financial managers’ analytical kit. The basic propose of this statement is to indicate where funds came from and where it was used during certain period. Following are the uses of this which show its importance:
[1] Fund flow statement determines the financial consequences of business operations. It shows how the funds were obtained and used in the past. Financial manager can take corrective actions.
[2] The management can formulate its financial policies – dividend, reserve etc. on the basis of the statement.
[3] It serves as a control device, when comparing with budgeted figures. The financial manager can take remedial steps, if there is any deviation.
[4]Other points:
1. It points out the sound and weak financial position of the enterprise.
2. It points out the causes for changes in working capital.
3. It enables the Bankers, creditors or financial institutions in
assessing the degree of risk involved in granting credit to the business.
4. The management can rearrange the firm’s financing more effectively on the basis of the statement.
5. Various uses of funds can be known and after comparing them with the uses of previous years, improvement or downfall in the firm can be assessed.
6. It provides a basis for preparation budgets for the future.
7. The statement compared with the budget concerned will show to what extent the resources of the firm were used according to plan and what extent the utilization was unplanned.
8. It tells whether sources of funds are increasing or decreasing or constant.
9. It points out the financial strengths and weaknesses of the business.
10. It helps in working capital management of the company.
11. It appraises the shareholders regarding the uses of funds in the business.


The main limitations of fund flow statement are as under:
(1) The statement lacks originality because it is only rearrangement of data appearing in account books
(2) It indicates only the past position and not future.
(3) It indicates Fund flow a summary form and it does not showvarious changes which take place continuously.
(4) When both the aspects of a transaction are current, they are not considered.
(6) When both the aspects of a transaction are non- current, even then they are not included in this statement.
(6) It is not an ideal tool for financial analysis.
(7) It is not an original statement but simply a rearrangement of two statements or financial data.
(8) It is not a substitute of income statement or a balance sheet. It is only a supplement to them.


In order to analyze the sources and application of funds, it is essential to know the meaning and components of flow of funds given below:
(l) Current Assets
(2) Non-Current Assets (Fixed or Permanent Assets)
(3) Current Liabilities
(4) Non-Current Liabilities (Capital & Long-Term Liabilities)
(5) Provision for Tax
(6) Proposed Dividend

Amit Kumar
Amit Kumar
Hii! Welcome to My digital home, I am Amit – an almost no-code generalist, helping businesses with their online presence using WordPress and other tools and simplifying some of their operations with ideas and automation. A psychology and philosophy geek by interest and a graduate in Hospitality Management. I founded hmhelp during college, which got me into WordPress. I am a highly motivated and results-oriented professional with a proven track record of success in the hospitality industry. I’m also a Digital Marketing Enthusiast with significant academic and practical experience managing digital content across multiple platforms. Skilled at SEO optimization, developing digital content for social media platforms, I offer extensive knowledge of multiple software programs, strong attention to detail, and extraordinary communication skills. If you are interested in talking about any of the topics I have mentioned on my website, you are in the right place. You can contact me or learn more about what I do. You can also connect with me on social networks.

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