Milk Cream and Butter

whipping cream, milk powder, skimmed milk, homogenized milk, composition of milk

MILK, CREAM & BUTTER

Milk represents a major ingredient in our diet- poured over cereals, drunk in glasses, in tea and coffee- but it also enters the composition of many dishes especially desserts such as ice cream, custard, pancakes, rice puddings etc. it is particularly high in calcium, but it is also fairly in fat.

COMPOSITION:

Protein                       11%

Fats                             3%

Minerals                    1%

Vitamins                    1%

Carbohydrates          2%

Water                         82%

There are many types of milk consumed though mostly it is cows milk, goats milk and sheep’s milk.

HISTORY OF MILK

Milk can be defined as a white opaque slightly sweet nutritious liquid secreated by the mammary glands, Milk has always been a symbol of fertility and wealth since biblical times and the promise land was described to be flowing with milk and honey.  In India and Asia, zebus and water-buffalo’s milk were considered sacred while the Romans and the Greeks were partial to the goat’s and ewe’s milk they also drank mares, camels, and asses milk.

COMPOSITION OF MILK

In the West, most cooks use cow’s milk.  Goat’s and sheep’s milk, rich in fat and protein, are sometimes drunk as a beverage, but the bulk is made into cheese, Water – buffalo milk, highest of all in fat is particularly good for cheese making.  Mare’s milk is high in sugar and is popular in Eastern Europe for fermented milk drinks.

Cow’s Milk contains about 87% water, with 3.5% protein (mostly casein) and about 5% carbohydrate (lactose).  The fat content of milk however varies with the breed of cow and its feed, from around 3% to over 5% for jersey cows.  In most countries the sale of raw milk –straight from the cow, filtered but otherwise unprocessed-is illegal because it may contain dangerous organisms such as those that cause tuberculosis, To kill these bacteria and enzymes that produce off-flavours, milk is pasteurized before sale by heating it to

144* F/62* C for 30 minutes or 160*F/72*C for 15 seconds.  Much pasteurized milk is homogenized-processed so that the fat remains evenly dispersed in the milk. Some smaller American dairies also sell un homogenized milk, offering cooks the option of pouring of the creamy ‘top’

COMPOSITION:

Protein                       11%

Fats                             3%

Minerals                    1%

Vitamins                    1%

Carbohydrates          2%

Water                         82%

UHT- Ultra heat treatment milk

In Europe and the United States, a good deal of ultra-pasteurized (sterilized) milk is also sold.  Called longlife or UHT (ultra-high temperature), it is packaged in hermetically sealed boxes that allow it to be stored unrefridgerated for up to three months.  The milk is heated in a sealed container to about 289*F/138*C for about one to three seconds.  This milk sterilization process is termed as “Uperization”, the word is a contraction of “Ultra”

And ‘pasteurization’. Uperization destroys much of the taste, which makes UHT milk less desirable for drinking, and best reserved for cooking, where it can be used like regular milk.

PASTEURIZATION OF MILK:

Almost all fresh milk is marketed as pasteurized these days, as this is a precaution to guard against food poisoning. To pasteurize milk one has to heat it to high temperature below boiling point by one of the two methods:

  1. The Flash Method: Milk is brought to 71* c. and held there for not less than 15 seconds.
  2. Holding Method: In this method the milk is heated to 62*c and held at this temperature for not less than 30 minutes.

KINDS OF MILK:

Whole Milk: which contains at least 3.5% of butter fat, which gives it that wholesome taste.

Homogenized Milk: It is whole, pasteurized, and treated so that its fat globules are broken to the extent that there is no separation of fat from milk. It is a mechanical process, which reduces the size of the fat and then mixes them together. This is the best milk to use for Tea and Coffee.

Skimmed Milk: this is the milk without any fat. Basically it is a fat buster, low calorie produce.

Butter Milk: It was originally the by-product or rather a by-product while making butter.

Today, buttermilk is made from pasteurized milk with an addition of lactic acid bacteria.

Milk Powder: This is the whole milk from which the water is removed by either spray drying or by drying processes

.

Milk and fermented products

Yogurt, sour cream, creme fraiche, and buttermilk are all produced by inoculating

milk or cream with a bacterial strain that causes fermentation f fermentation process thickens the milk and gives it a pleasantly sour flavor.

Yogurt is made by introducing the proper culture into milk (whole,. nonfat may be used). Available in a variety of container sizes and yogurt can be purchased plain or flavored with different fruits, honey, coffee, or other ingredients.

Sour cream is a cultured sweet cream that contains about 16 to22 percent fatit comes       in containers of various sizes, beginning with a half pint. Low fat and Nonfat versions of sour cream are available.

Creme friache is similar to sour cream but has a slightly rounded flavor with less bite. It is often preferred in cooking because it tends to curdle less readily than sour cream when used in hot dishes. This product is made from heavy cream with butter

heavy cream with a butterfat content of approximately 30 percent. The high butterfat

Content helps account for its higher cost. Although creme frai’che able commercially, many operations make their own by heating heavy, adding a small amount of buttermilk, and allowing the mixture to ferment at room temperature until thickened and lightly soured.

Buttermilk, strictly speaking, is the by-product of churned butter.despite its name, it contains only a very small amount of butterfat. Most buttermilk sold today is actually nonfat milk to which a bacterial strain has been added. Usually  sold in pintss or quarts, buttermilk is also available as a dried powder for baking uses.

CREAM

Cream is the butter fat content of whole cow’s milk, separated from the water. The principal difference between the various types of cream – single cream, double cream, whipping cream, clotted cream and soured cream- is the balance between water and butterfat. This will make them liquid or of a very thick consistency. Other differences are in the way they have been made and their time for maturing which results in different tastes.

Single Cream: contains not less than 18% butterfat. It cannot be whipped due to there being too little butterfat.

Double Cream: contains not less than 45% butterfat. It cannot be whipped but not too much, as it will turn to butter.  It can be used to enrich sauces, but may

Curdle if boiled along with acid ingredients.

Whipping Cream: contains not less than 38% butterfat.  It is perfect for whipping as its name indicates.  After whipping you will find a difference in texture and a change in volume.  Sweetened or unsweetened cream can be used in desserts or can be used as a accompaniment, and is incorporated in mousses to lighten them.

Clotted Cream: contains not less than 55% butterfat.  It is already very thick so it can be used as it is an not whipped.

Soured Cream: These are single creams that contain about 20% butterfat, but have a souring culture in them, and they are matured.

Half and half: is a mixture of milk and cream in equal quantities and contains about 10-12% butterfat.

Note: Cream should be whipped a t around 4* c. And for this it will be helpful to chill the bowls also so as to allow little dissipation of heat.

BUTTER

All butters are made from pasteurized cream and is made by churning cream.  Cream is an emulsion of fat droplets dispersed in water.  As the cream is churned the fat droplets soften slightly and start to join up as they start to bump into each other.  A gradually larger lump of fat form until the original arrangement of fat dispersed in water has swapped around leaving droplets of water in the fat.  Buttermilk, which is largely water, is drawn off and you are left with lumps of butter.

Why is it that when you leave butter unwrapped in the fridge it picks up unwanted smells and odours?

It is related to a process in the perfume industry called `enfleurage’ freshly picked flowers are put on a layer of fat for some hours or days, then the fat is distilled to remove the volatile perfume molecules which have been trapped in it.  This effect is due to the hydrophobic (fear of water) nature of these aromatic molecules: they dissolve badly in water, but easily in fat.  The same effect can happen when you refrigerate unwrapped butter: any strong small, due to molecules can get trapped in.  The technique of enfleurage can be made to good effect also by utilizing the fragrance of herb’s and other aromatics in savoury butters and oils and in marinades. 

Clarified butter: is unsalted butter with the water and the milk solids removed,  You prepare clarified butter by slowly melting the butter so that the water evaporates and the milk solids settle to the bottom of the pan.   The clarified butter is then either spooned out or carefully poured out leaving the milk solids behind.  Because the milk solids are removed clarified butter has a higher smoking point, Meaning that you can heat up the butter to a higher temperature without burning or smoking.

PROPER STORAGE TIMES FOR DAIRY PRODUCTS …………………………………………………………………………..1…………………. PRODUCT                                     STORAGE TIME           Milk, fluid, pasteurized                      1 week                      (whole, low-fat, nonfat) Milk, evaporated Unopened                                      6 months                 Opened                                           3-5 days                     Milk, sweetened, condensed Unopened                                     2-3 months                   Opened                                         3-5 days Milk, nonfat dry Unopened                                     3 months                      Reconstituted                               1 week                      buttermilk                                        2-3 weeks                    400F/20-4″C Yogurt                                              3-6 weeks                    -400F/20-40C Cream Table or whipping                         1 week                       Ultrapasteurized                          6 weeks                      -Whipped, pressurised                    3 weeks                      400F/20-4″C Ice cream                                            4 weeks                      –   Butter                                              3~5 days                     Margarine                                           5-7 days                     350F/20C Cheese, unripened, soft                     5-7 days                     350400F/211-40C Cheese, ripened, soft, semisoft          5-7 days                    Cheese, ripened, hard                        2-3 months                   Cheese, very hard                            2-3 months                   Cheese foods                                  2-3 weeks                    – Cheese, processed Unopened                                  3-4 months                   700F/1611-210C Opened                                     1-2 weeks  
 

Amit Kumar
Amit Kumarhttps://hmhelp.in
Hii! Welcome to My digital home, I am Amit – an almost no-code generalist, helping businesses with their online presence using WordPress and other tools and simplifying some of their operations with ideas and automation. A psychology and philosophy geek by interest and a graduate in Hospitality Management. I founded hmhelp during college, which got me into WordPress. I am a highly motivated and results-oriented professional with a proven track record of success in the hospitality industry. I’m also a Digital Marketing Enthusiast with significant academic and practical experience managing digital content across multiple platforms. Skilled at SEO optimization, developing digital content for social media platforms, I offer extensive knowledge of multiple software programs, strong attention to detail, and extraordinary communication skills. If you are interested in talking about any of the topics I have mentioned on my website, you are in the right place. You can contact me or learn more about what I do. You can also connect with me on social networks.

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