Revenue Management | Solved Paper | 2018-2019 | 2nd Sem MSc. HA

Table of Contents

Q.1. Why is Larder Control important? How is it exercised? (10)

If the larder is to be run efficiently and economically, it is essential that the chef Garde Manger should exercise the strictest possible control over the foodstuffs received and stored in the department. This will involve:

  1. Checking the quantity and quality of all goods delivered to the larder.
  2. Ensuring that all foodstuffs are stored at the right temperature and that they can be easily checked.
  3. That the food is protected from contamination by vermin.
  4. That Portion Control is rigidly carried out eg., a given piece of meat, fish, and vegetable should always Produce required portions of steaks, fillets, salads, or Hors d’oeuvre.
  5. What stocks are regularly turned over.
  6. That food is not overstocked.
  7. A simple daily stock sheet by each sub-department is maintained.
  8. Every Possible effort must be made to maintain the highest possible standard of hygiene. Every Precaution should also be taken to discourage Pilferage.

The stock and order sheet should be as simple and easy to keep up to date as possible. A complicated stock sheet requiring too much writing will defect the whole purpose as it will be neglected during busy rush periods, the very time it is needed most. For some sub-departments, devising an easy and simple system is reasonably easy. In some cases it is not so easy for example, Also keeping of the stock of food sent in and returned by the cold buffet can be complicated and time-wasting if one is to measure every ounce or inch. Therefore it is necessary to accept some rule of thumb Providing it is well supervised. An experienced chef Garde Manger should be able to tell at a glance the weight, or number of Portion of a given joint or cold dish. The butchery department also Presents some Problems and the stock sheet for this department needs careful consideration. Each establishment will devise its own system taking into account its own problems.

Or Define ‘Larder’. What are the various sections under Larder? What are the duties and responsibilities of Larder Chef? (10)

The term Garde Manger originally identified a storage area. Preserved foods such as Hams, sausages, bacon, cheese, etc. were held in this area, cold foods for Banquets and Buffets are arranged here. Over the years this term evolved to mean more than just a storage area. It now also indicates a station in the professional kitchen, responsible for preparing Cold foods, Buffets, Decorative pieces, etc. and it‟s Chefs who prepare them. Definition: The Larder is a department set aside for the storage of all perishable foods both raw and cooked and is also used for processing and preparation of all cold items served

The larder of a 5-star operational kitchen will be segregated into the following section-

  1. Hors d’oeuvres and salad section having two sinks, work tables, storage racks and cupboards, refrigerator, gas range, and pickup counter.
  2. Poultry and Butchery section with a butcher’s block, work table, refrigerators, deep freeze, mincing and slicing machine, sinks.
  3. The fish section has live fish tanks, two sinks, work tables, refrigerator, deep freeze.
  4. A general section with work tables.
  5. Cold rooms with deep freezer and walk-in facility.
  6. A weighing scale next to the entrance.
  7. Chef’s office

The responsibilities of the Chef Garde-Manger, therefore, are many and varied. This person is responsible: –

  • For the efficient running of the Larder department and
  • For the coordination of the work of its staff;
  • For the training and discipline of larder staff;
  • For the foodstuffs in the department, some of which may be stored in refrigerators or even in the deep freeze, or preserved by other means.
  • The Chef Garde-Manger is responsible for keeping a record of such foodstuffs and a day-by-day record of issues to the kitchen or other departments.
  • The Chef Garde-Manger must study the menus in advance, so as to be able to order meat, fish, etc., in time for the foodstuff to be prepared and cleaned and made ready for the kitchen in time for it to be cooked.
  • Responsible to order all necessary stores for the various larder productions such as salads, hors d’oeuvres, sauces, buffets, etc.
  • The Larder Chef is responsible for the efficient storage of food to avoid deterioration and wastage.
  • For cleanliness and hygiene in the department, to avoid any danger of contamination and possible food poisoning.

Q.2. What are the various parts of a sandwich? Explain the importance of each part giving suitable examples. (10)

Parts of Sandwich

The four parts of a sandwich can be listed as:

  • Bread
  • Spread
  • Filling
  • Garnish


Various types of bread can be used to make sandwiches. The type of bread has a dramatic effect on the finished fare. The quality of the bread also has a great impact on the quality and taste of the final product. Sandwich bread (also referred to as sandwich loaf) is the bread that is prepared specifically to be used for the preparation of sandwiches.Eg. rye bread, sourdough, focaccia bread, pita, white bread, brown bread.


A sandwich spread is a spreadable condiment used in a sandwich, in addition to more solid ingredients. The main function of the spread is to hold the filling and the bread together. It also forms a protective layer on the bread and prevents it from getting soggy from the moisture in the filling. Moreover, it adds to the taste of the sandwich and in the case of children, contributes to the nutritive value.

Some of the spreads are:

  • Plain and compound butter like anchovy, herb, parsley butter
  • Mayonnaise and its derivatives
  • Low fat spreads like margarine
  • Cheese spreads and cheese paste


It could be a variety of limitless items. The filling gives the sandwich its name. Fillings could include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, vegetables. Salami, cooked roast chicken, ox tongue, sliced cucumber, and tomato are all popular fillings.

The filling could be a single item or a combination of several. Ham and cheese, Cucumber and chutney, Bacon and tomato. It is important that the combinations are complementary to each other.


To enhance the appearance and the presentation of the sandwich, it is necessary to create eye appeal. The garnish is not absolutely essential and can be avoided in an informal setting. The garnish should be delicate and dainty and not cumbersome and ugly. For a natural or healthy look to sandwiches, we can use Use green garnishes. Lettuce, parsley, spinach, and arugula are the common option of adding greens to sandwiches. Garnish a platter with asparagus, celery or sliced cucumber to give guests the option of an extra crunch to go along with their sandwich. 

Or (a) Explain the following types of sandwiches: 

(i) Club 

Club Sandwich is the sandwich that is usually served hot and consists of two buttered slices of toast. One slice is the base on which sliced cooked chicken, Egg lettuce, tomato grilled bacon, and mayonnaise or ham is placed. The other slice of toast is placed on top pressed, trimmed and decorated, served between the folds of a paper napkin.

(ii) Buffet 

Buffet sandwich: Smaller than conventional triangles, fingers or squares, and fancy shapes.


An open sandwich, also known as an open-face/open-faced sandwich, bread baser, bread platter, or tartine, consists of one or more slices of bread with one or more food items on top.

(iv) Grilled 

Two slices of bread with fillings grilled and then served. They are hot Sandwiches.

(v) Pinwheel 

The top crust is taken out of the sandwich loaf. It is sliced lengthwise, and butter and soft filling spread evenly, which is of a Colour to contrast with the spread. Each slice is rolled and wrapped firmly in a foil and chilled till it is set. It is cut into thin slices and served.

(b) What are the care and precautions taken while preparing a sandwich? How should a sandwich be stored? (5+5=10)

 Care and precautions to be taken while preparing a sandwich

  • Soften the butter before spreading it.
  • Smooth fillings such as cream cheese spread easiest at room temperature. If certain fillings need to be made in advance and refrigerated, leave them for some time at room temperature before spreading.
  • Use a palette knife for easy spreading.
  • Ideally, bread should be between 12-24 hours old.
  • Butter both slices of the bread which forms the sandwich.
  • Buy sliced bread wherever possible – it’s neater and quicker.
  • If you are slicing the bread yourself, pile up the slices in the order they have been cut.
  • Use sufficient filling for each sandwich –the label should not be the only means of identification.
  • Meat should be free of all gristle and excessive fat.
  • Beware of dry meat. Moisten with lemon juice (fish), mayonnaise (vegetables), or aspic jelly (meats). When making roast beef sandwiches, its best to leave the meat underdone.
  • Once cut, wrap sandwiches in a wax paper, foil, or cling wrap to keep them fresh.

Storage – When storing ingredients for sandwiches and finished sandwiches make sure you regard them as highly perishable. It is essential to stringently apply hygienic food handling principles to the storage and preparation of sandwiches. The following must be taken into account.

Always use fresh bread. The risk of cross-contamination is always present with these foods so work hygienically at all times. Sandwiches are highly perishable. Ingredients must be closely tracked at each stage of the production process to ensure that each ingredient is handled correctly. Ingredients must be fresh, freshly prepared, held at below 50C, prepared in batches related to production requirements, and kept for the minimum amount of time possible between receival and service.

Q.3. Write short notes on the following:  (5+5=10)

(a) Marinades – importance and components 

A marinade is a seasoned liquid with various aromatics in which meat, poultry, game, and even vegetables are steeped.

The function of a marinade is to :

  • add flavor and taste to the food.
  • Tenderize meat
  • Short-term meat preservation.

When only their flavor is intended, the aromatics can be tied in a sachet to be removed after their flavor has been released. All marinaded meats must be dried properly before use. Wet meats will not brown properly. 

The length of time for marination depends on several factors :

  1. The type of meat or foodstuff. Beef will take longer than chicken to marinade. Also, the cut of meat is important. Tenderloin will need very little marinading time compared to the rump.
  2. The size of the item. A leg of pork will take longer than the leg of chicken
  3. The temperature. Foods marinade best at room temperature. However, at times refrigeration will be required if the item is being kept overnight. In any case, fish has to be marinated at refrigerated temperatures.

Marinades are made up of the following components:

Oil – could be olive, peanut, salad, or plain refined oil. Flavored oils such as garlic oil, chili oil, and herb-flavored oil can also be used. The oil in the marinade helps to prevent moisture loss. 

Acid – A whole range of acid products can be added to the marinade. Citrus fruits, vinegar (plain and flavored), lemon juice, yogurt, red and white wine are generally used.

Aromatics – such as herbs, spices, proprietary sauces.

Seasoning – primarily salt, sea salt, black salt, garlic salt, rock salt, and grain salt.

(b) Aspic – preparation, and use. 

The classical method Of preparing an aspic jelly is to nuke a stock With the addition Of more collagen-rich products. In particular, these would include pork skin, calves feet, knuckle joints, and shank bones. There are two major steps in the classical preparation Of aspic jelly. First comes the preparation Of the stock and this is followed by the clarification This type Of aspic jelly depends solely on the amount Of gelatin present in the bones for gelling.

 In short, the preparation of aspic consists of the following steps: 

  • Stock must be nude using gelatinous items such as pork skin, calves feet, knuckle joints, and shank bones.
  •  The stock must be reduced first and then clarified with aromatic vegetables, Wine, and seasoning.

uses of Aspic Jelly: 

  1. To coat showpieces such as whole turkeys and hams
  2. For Aspic sheets, Aspic mirrors, and Aspic cut-outs. Decorative centerpieces can be made using colored aspic. 
  3. To fill cavities in Pates. 
  4.  To line molds for cold buffet presentation. 
  5. To glaze whole terrines and galantines and items coated with chaud froid.
  6.  To prepare aspic croutons which can be used to garnish cold platters or  even added into salads 
  7. Chopped aspic, which can be used as a base to present a variety of cold meats on the buffet. 
  8. To glaze canapes, zakuski and other hors d’oeuvres. 

Q.4. What are the various parts of a sausage? Explain (10)

Sausages are any meat that has been comminuted and seasoned. Comminuted Means diced, ground, job, emulsified, or otherwise reduced to minute particles by mechanical means. sausage consists of two parts:

  • the casing
  • the filling

The Casing

Casings are of vital importance in sausage making. their primary function is that of a holder for the meat mixture they also have a major effect on the mouthfeel and appearance. Some casings are edible and are meant to be eaten with sausage other casings are nonedible and are peeled away before eating

The variety of casings available are broadly classified into :

  • Natural casings
  • Collagen casings
  • Fibrous cellulose casings
  • Protein lined fibrous cellulose casings

The Filling

the filling of the sausage is made up of two parts

  • the meat component
  • the non-meat component

The meat component:

a variety of meats are used in the sausage industry. each type of meat provides a different type of flavor, texture, and color in the product. some of the types of meats used are as follows:

Lean meats make up the largest proportion of the meat component providing the dominant character of the product. the color, texture, and appearance of the product are determined by these meats.

Pork fat adds to the taste, flavor, and texture of the forcemeat. jowl fat is the most commonly used product in is obtained from the cheek of the animal.

Variety meats are the offals of the carcass and can be added into the forcemeat in the production  of sausage

The non-meat component:

non-meat ingredients are food items that are added to the filling before stuffing. they enhance the flavor and the color, slow or prevent bacteria growth, act as a preservative, and increase the volume and the bulk of the mixture. there are six types of these additives:

  • water
  • curing agents
  • curing accelerators
  • sensory enhancers 
    • salt
    • sweetener
    • smoke 
    • flavor enhancers
  • stability enhancers
  • extender and binders 

Or Explain any four types of casings used in the preparation of sausages. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each one of them? (10)

Different types of casings used in sausage making are as follows:-

a. Natural casings

These are made from the intestines of animals such as hogs, pigs, wild boar, cattle, and sheep. The intestine is a very long organ and is ideal for a casing of the sausage. They should be refrigerated at all times. Natural casings are available in Australia, New Zealand, and South America where cattle are reared on a very large scale.


  • They are semi-porous and permit deeper smoke penetration. 
  • Natural casings absorb flavors and release fats better


  •  need to be protected from extreme variations in temperature.

b. Collagen casings

These are edible and are not synthetic casings. They are made from the hide of cattle. Collagen is obtained from the corium layer that is situated just under the skin of the animal. The fat, flesh, and hair are removed from the hide and it is split into two layers by special equipment.


  • they can be manufactured in the sizes that you require, both diameter and length.
  • They are stronger and are preferred while using machines in the commercial manufacture of sausages.


  • this casing is tough and that might be a negative for some people

c. Fibrous cellulose casings

These are by-products of the food processing industry. Cellulose and fiber are extracted from the husk, skin, peels, pips, and seeds of the fruit and vegetables during the processing stage. These are processed further to make casings. These types of casings are also referred to as peel-able cellulose


  • they take the smoking and curing processes very well.
  • available in various shapes, colors, and sizes.


  • they are inedible and must be removed prior to eating any sausage you make with them.

d. Protein lined fibrous cellulose casings

A protein lining is often added to the inside of the above type of casing. These casings are ideal for the dried sausages. The protein lining causes the casing to shrink as the meat is cooked or dried so that it retains the shape of the sausage.


  • they take the smoking and curing processes very well.
  • it maintains and retains the shape of the sausage while cooking


  • they are inedible and must be removed prior to eating any sausage you make with them.
  • cannot be directly used for stuffing, needs to be soaked to soften the protein layer.

Q.5. (a) Explain the preparation of chicken galantine. 

Method of making chicken galantine is:-

  • Preheat oven to 160C.
  • Bone chicken – your butcher will do this for you, just give him a little notice.
  • Generously season the inside of the chicken with salt and pepper. Set aside.
  • In a large bowl, combine the pork mince, chorizo, olives, paprika, parsley, basil, and garlic.
  • Arrange the stuffing lengthways along the inside of the chicken.
  • Roll the chicken around the stuffing. Fasten with a skewer and tie with butchers twine.
  • Roast in your preheated oven for about a 1 hour or until the core temperature of chicken reaches 72C.
  • Rest for 10-15mins before carving.

(b) Write a short note on the preparation of ‘Pâté de Foie gras’. (5+5=10)

Foie Gras is considered a luxury dish, and a staple of French cuisine served as an appetizer. It is a baked pâté made of goose liver. Force-feeding geese to enlarge their livers for harvest has made the dish controversial and banned in some places.

  1. Preheat oven to 200°F and line a small roasting pan with a folded kitchen towel.
  2. Sprinkle each lobe and any loose pieces of the goose liver (foie gras) on both sides with kosher salt and white pepper. Sprinkle one-third of Sauternes in a terrine and firmly press large lobe of foie gras, smooth side down, into the bottom. 
  3. Put terrine (with plastic wrap and lid) in roasting pan and fill roasting pan with enough hot water to reach halfway up the side of the terrine. Bake in the middle of the oven.
  4. Remove terrine from pan. Discard water and remove the towel. Return terrine to roasting pan and remove the lid.
  5. Place the cardboard directly on the surface of the foie gras and set a 3 lb weight on cardboard Let stand at room temperature 20 minutes.
  6. Remove weight and cardboard and spoon any fat that has dripped over side of terrine back onto the top (fat will seal terrine). Chill, covered, until solid, at least 1 day.
  7. Unmold foie gras by running a hot knife around the edge. Invert onto a plate and reinvert, fat side up, onto serving dish. Cut into slices with a heated sharp knife.
  8. Serve on your favorite bread.

Q.6. (a) Describe the use of wines and herbs in cookery giving suitable examples.

The Uses Of Wine In Cooking:

Marinades Both red and white wine are used as marinades for meat. One of the primary uses is for the flavor, but wines also help to tenderizer the meat and remove offensive flavors, if there are any.

Sauces Wines are used for making sauces, both for savory items as well as desserts. Most of the stock-based sauces are a mixture of stock and wine reduced to a glaze and then thickened with soft butter or various thickening agents.

Deglazing This is the most versatile method employed to retain the flavor of the sauce. Deglazing is the process where the liquid, such as wine and stock, is used for dissolving the remains of the cooked food in a pan.

Flaming Wines and spirits are alcohol. Thus, upon igniting, these wines flare up and burn until the alcohol burned off. This principle is used for flaming various dishes to give a good visual appeal.

Stocks Wines are commonly used for flavoring stocks. Apart from adding flavor, wines are also added for various other reasons, one of them being to make an acidic stock called court bouillon.

The use of herbs in cooking:

Flavoring Herbs can be chopped, minced, torn, and added to soups and stocks, or they can be added in the form of bouquet garni which means “a bunch of herbs”.

Garnishing Herbs are commonly used for garnishes. They can be minced finely as in the case of parsley or used whole in food and also dessert. Some of the classic ways of using herbs for garnish are:

  • fine herbs
  • deep-fried herbs
  • sprigs 

Herbal oils Oil can be flavored by one or more herbs. These oils are used for making vinaigrettes or dressings for salads and also used for glazing meat or used as a sauce such as basil oil in Italian cuisine.

Herb butter is made by combining softened butter with chopped herbs. This kind of flavored butter is also known as compound butter.

Herbal drinks For centuries, herbs have been drunk as herbal decoctions that are believed to be a cure for many ailments including cancer. Before the advent of medicines, it was herbs and spices that were used as medicines.

 (b) Write a short note on ‘Importance of culinary garnishes’.  (5+5=10) 

Importance of garnishing dishes are as follows:

  • Visual Appeal
  • Flavor Enhancement
  • Plate Filler
  • Dish Identification

Visual Appeal

We experience food with our eyes before tasting it, and the garnish adds a spot of color for our eyes to feast on before the taste touches our tongue or the smell reaches our nose. Garnishes add a spot of color to foods, especially monochromatic ones. Even the simplest of garnishes will make a dish appear more appetizing than the same food without garnishing.

Flavor Enhancement

Garnishes enhance the flavor of some dishes. Lemon wedges served with seafood not only add a yellow color to the plate, but the diner can use the juice from the lemon to flavor the food. A mint sprig on top of a fruit dessert lightly infuses the dish with the herb’s refreshing flavor. This is why it is important to choose garnishes that complement the flavors of the food they are served with.

Plate Filler

Some plates look empty, even after the food has been arranged. Garnishes can fill in the empty spaces on a plate, giving the illusion of an abundant dish. This trick is used to surround the serving plates on buffet tables or at salad bars by surrounding the dishes with garnishes of parsley or ice sculptures.

Dish Identification

Some dishes are not readily identifiable just by looking at the food. For instance, it can be difficult to determine if you have a bowl of savory soup of pureed carrots or a sweet dessert soup of pumpkin just by appearance. Both dishes are deep orange in color and thick in texture. Adding a carrot curl on top of carrot soup can help the diner identify what he is about to enjoy.

Q.7. Differentiate between (any two): (2×5=10)

(a) Gratin and Mousseline forcemeat

Partial cook some of the meats before grinding or pureeing the forcemeat. Livers, especially poultry, are commonly used and mixed with a panada. Eggs, cream, and panada are used as a binder. Gratin forcemeats are used as terrines or packed into crocks as a spreadable mixture.Very light in texture, utilizing lean cuts of meat usually from veal, poultry, fish, or shellfish. The resulting texture comes from the addition of eggs and cream to this forcemeat. A forcemeat made with lean meat, fish or poultry, and emulsified with cream and egg whites (1-2 egg whites per lb./450 g of lean meat). Delicate forcemeat is suitable for lighter fish and seafood emulsions. Used for pates, terrines, quenelles or ravioli fillings

(b) Ham and Bacon 

Cured or cooked fresh.Can be eaten smoked, boiled, fried, grilled or baked.
All ham is taken either from thigh or rump and varies only in the curing process according to different countries.Types of bacon depend on the thickness and where the cut of meat is taken from in the pig.
Can be cooked and served fresh; wet or dry cured usually with honey or sugarCured in brine or in a dry packing containing large amounts of salt, smoked, boiled or dried in cold air.
Meat from the thigh or rump of a pig, cut from the haunch of a pig or boar.Cured meat prepared from a pig.

(c) Pâté and Terrine

Pâté is a paste, pie or loaf consisting of a forcemeat that at least contains liver. Common additions include ground meat from pork, poultry, fish or beef, fat, vegetables, herbs, spices, and either wine or brandy (often cognac or Armagnac). Pâté can be served either hot or cold, but it is considered to develop its best flavors after a few days of chilling.A terrine, in traditional French cuisine, is a loaf of forcemeat or aspic, similar to a pâté, that is cooked in a covered pottery mold (also called a terrine) in a bain-marie. Terrines are usually served cold or at room temperature. Most terrines contain a large amount of fat, although it is often not the main ingredient, and pork; and many terrines are made with typical game meat, such as pheasant and hare.

(d) Mousse and Mousseline 

A mousse is soft prepared food that incorporates air bubbles to give it a light and airy texture. It can range from light and fluffy to creamy and thick, depending on the preparation techniques. A mousse may be sweet or savory. Sweet mousses are typically made with whipped egg whites or whipped cream, and flavored with one or more of chocolate, coffee, caramel, puréed fruits, or different herbs and spices. Savory mousses are made from meat, fish, shellfish, foie gras, cheese, or vegetables. Hot mousses often get their light texture from the addition of beaten egg whites. It is sometimes stabilized with gelatinMousseline may be used either for a sauce or for a type of fabric. Sauce Mousseline is also known as Sauce Chantilly, is produced by folding whipped cream into hollandaise sauce. Mousseline is also used for a very fine, semi-opaque fabric that is similar to muslin. It is a cotton fabric of plain weave. A very fine, semi-opaque fabric similar to muslin, typically made of silk, wool, or cotton. A soft, lightly sweet, or savory mousse. A hollandaise sauce that has been made frothy with whipped cream or egg white, served mainly with fish or asparagus.

Q.8. Explain the following terms (any ten):  (10×1=10)

(a) Bitok 

Small meat patty made from raw minced beef and bread, then bound together with an egg.

(b) Ballotine

a piece of roasted meat that has first been boned, stuffed, and folded or rolled into a cylindrical shape.

(c) Kromeskies

a croquette consisting of a piece of bacon wrapped around minced meat or fish.

(d) Picnic bacon

Picnic Bacon is produced by curing and smoking meat from a pig’s shoulder, also called the Picnic cut. Picnic Bacon is much cheaper than the bacon taken from the Belly or the Loin.

(e) Roulade

a dish cooked or served in the form of a roll, typically made from a flat piece of meat, fish, or sponge, spread with a soft filling and rolled up into a spiral.

(f) Mezze

mezze is a selection of small dishes served as appetizers in parts of the Middle East, the Balkans, Greece, and North Africa.meze is often served as a part of multi-course meals.

(g)Butcher’s yield

The purpose of a butcher yield test is to find the accurate costs of fabricated meats, fish, and poultry. For instance, if you save the lean meat to make ground meat, the value of that part of the trim is the price you would pay to purchase ground meat.

(h) Tinted curing mix

Also known as Pink Salt, Prague Powder #1, or TCM (tinted curing mix), curing salt is used to inhibit the growth of bacteria in preserved meats while keeping color and flavor intact. The addition of 6.25% sodium nitrite is the key 

(i) Green bacon

Green bacon is a fresh, non-smoked style of cured bacon. As this recipe contains no nitrates, the bacon will stay fresh for only a week after curing. Green bacon is versatile and can be used in place of regular bacon in pies, sandwiches, and tarts. You’ll need to begin this recipe a week ahead.

(j) Carmen

a driver of a van or cart; a carrier.

(k) Nantua 

Nantua sauce (French: Sauce Nantua) is a classical French sauce consisting of a Béchamel sauce base. cream. crayfish butter. crayfish tails.

(l) Nisçoise

Nisçoise is a salad that originated in the French city of Nice. It is traditionally made of tomatoes, hard-boiled eggs, Niçoise olives and anchovies or tuna, dressed with olive oil. It has been popular worldwide since the early 20th century

Q.9. Non-edible displays is a skill acquired through continuous practice and require planning beforehand. Elucidate the procedure of preparing ‘ice-carvings’ and ‘Pastillage’ display.  (10)

Ice carvings 

The ice sculpture is the highlight of any buffet, the artistic touch, the focal point. Ice can be carved in any shape, size, or figure that fits the theme or occasion. For example, for Christmas, there could be a Santa Claus, for an anniversary, a heart. The essentials for ice carving are. 

  •  A 100 –300-pound block of ice, 40 inches high by 20 inches wide by 10 inches thick. Blocks like this can be purchased.
  • A pair of ice tongs for moving ends handling the ice. 
  • An ice shaver with three to six prongs used to carve out the details and do the small cutting on the block of ice. 
  • An ice pick used to split the block into smaller pieces. 
  • A hand saw, used to remove large cuts of ice or to make rough outlines.
  •  Chisels ranging in size from ½ to 2 inches.
  • An electric chain saw, when working with this type of saw, it is important to have the saw grounded to prevent accidents. 
  • A good pair of gloves which have metal fingertips to prevent accidents 
  • A template, made on graph paper, of the shape of the ice carving that is to be made
  • Salt. 


A thick sugar paste, similar to gum paste, is molded into shapes. When dried, it is hard and brittle. Made with gelatin, water, and confectioner’s sugar, it hardens quickly and can be shaped for a short while by hand, and after hardening, with electric grinders, cutters, sandpaper, and assorted files. Some recipes will contain an acid[1] in the ingredients list, such as vinegar or cream of tartar.


  • 1 egg white
  • 300g (11oz) icing (confectioners’) sugar, sifted
  • 10ml (2 tsp) gum tragacanth


  1. Put the egg white into a large mixing bowl.
  2. Gradually add enough icing sugar until the mixture combines together into a ball.
  3. Mix in the gum tragacanth, and then turn the paste out on to a work board or work surface and knead the pastillage well.
  4. Incorporate the remaining icing sugar into the remainder of pastillage to give a stiff paste.

Q.10. Match the following: (10×1=10)

(a) The back leg of pork(i) Sausage casing
(b) Pork fat(ii) Ham
(c) Rashers(iii) Veal shanks
(d) Caul(iv) Zampone
(e) Ossobuco(v) Lard
(f) Bone saw(vi) Larder equipment
(g) Wet curing mix(vii) Russian hors-d’ oeuvres
(h) Zakuski(viii) Batons of crisp salad vegetables
(i) Crudités(ix) Brine
(j) Chorizo(x) Thin slices of meat such as bacon
(xi) Sausage with the prominent red color of dried smoked red peppers
(a) The back leg of pork(ii) Ham (iv) Zampone
(b) Pork fat(v) Lard
(c) Rashers(x) Thin slices of meat such as bacon
(d) Caul(i) Sausage casing
(e) Ossobuco(iii) Veal shanks
(f) Bone saw(vi) Larder equipment
(g) Wet curing mix(ix) Brine
(h) Zakuski(vii) Russian hors-d’ oeuvres
(i) Crudités(viii) Batons of crisp salad vegetables
(j) Chorizo(xi) Sausage with the prominent red color of dried smoked red peppers
Amit Kumar
Amit Kumar
Hii! Welcome to My digital home, I am Amit – an almost no-code generalist, helping businesses with their online presence using WordPress and other tools and simplifying some of their operations with ideas and automation. A psychology and philosophy geek by interest and a graduate in Hospitality Management. I founded hmhelp during college, which got me into WordPress. I am a highly motivated and results-oriented professional with a proven track record of success in the hospitality industry. I’m also a Digital Marketing Enthusiast with significant academic and practical experience managing digital content across multiple platforms. Skilled at SEO optimization, developing digital content for social media platforms, I offer extensive knowledge of multiple software programs, strong attention to detail, and extraordinary communication skills. If you are interested in talking about any of the topics I have mentioned on my website, you are in the right place. You can contact me or learn more about what I do. You can also connect with me on social networks.

Latest Articles


Energy conservation measures for Hotel Industry DO’S AND DONT’S FOOD &...

Organization of Banquet Department

Banquet organization structure             ...

Types of Meringues

There are three types of meringue; their differences lie...

Additives and preservatives used in Ice-cream manufacture

 As ice creams move down the scale from premium,...

Ice Sculptures

Ice Sculptures The Ice sculpture is the highlight of any...

Function of menu

Menu is a very important tool for the operation...

Related Articles


Energy conservation measures for Hotel Industry DO’S AND DONT’S FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT This department consumes approximately 25% of the total energy cost so the opportunities to...

Organization of Banquet Department

Banquet organization structure             ...

Types of Meringues

There are three types of meringue; their differences lie in when and how the sugar is added: French Meringue This uncooked meringue is the one most...