STOCKS in Cookery Food production

Stocks are thin liquids flavored by soluble extracts of meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables. It is a liquid in which meat or meat bones, fish or fish bones and various vegetables have been cooked to extract flavor. ‘Fonds de cuisine’ is a
kitchen stock. Stocks are nutritious, strongly flavored liquids. They are important foundation liquids that they are used in the preparation of various dishes such as soups, sauces, gravies, stews, curries, braising, rice and cold dishes. The preparation
of stocks, calls for understanding, care, and discerning taste. Long, slow simmering of food and cold water used for stock (except for fish stock) is required to draw out the flavor – and nutrients into the liquids. After cooking is properly stored for a day it ripens and gives a fuller flavor. To improve the taste of Indian curries, pulao’s etc, it is important that stocks be used.

 Preparation of Stock | How to cook stock

As the stock is an important ingredient in various dishes, care should be taken in the preparation as follows:
• All fat should be removed from bones at the outset, as the stock becomes very greasy and becomes rancid soon.
• Marrow must be removed and put aside for use as a separate dish (marrow toast) or as garnish (petite marmite-Soup)
• The stock should only simmer. If allowed to boil, the agitation and particles of fat cause emulsification to become milky or cloudy.
• Bouquet garni should be tied to a handle of the stockpot. Cut large pieces of vegetables and add later on, as it flavors the stock. If allowed to remain in the pot too long, the vegetables will begin to disintegrate, discoloring the stock.
• The scum should be discarded.
• For storing, the stock should be strained and liquid should be cooled. No fat should be allowed to remain on the surface, as heat is prevented from escaping and may cause the stock to turn or become sour.
• Stock could be stored in a refrigerator or cold room.
• Stocks turn cloudy, if boiled too rapidly and if a lid is used and not carefully strained and not skimmed properly.

 Stocks form the foundation for

1. Soups                                          4.Sauces
2. Stews                                           5.Gravies
3. Braised dishes                             6.Cold food

 Few Basic Rules Commonly Prescribed for Preparing Stock

• The stock ingredients are simmered starting with cold water. This promotes the extraction of collagen, which may be sealed in by hot water.
• Stocks are simmered gently, with bubbles just breaking the surface, and not boiled. If a stock is boiled, it will be cloudy.
• Salt is usually not added to a stock, as this causes it to become too salty, since most stocks are reduced to make soups and sauces.
• Meat is added to stock before vegetables, and the “scum” that rises to the surface is skimmed off before further ingredients are added.
• The fat can be removed after the stock is finished and cooled, as it floats, separates, and solidifies into globs within the stock, and can be removed with ease.
• Stocks can be frozen and kept indefinitely but are better fresh.

 Basic Ingredients in Stock Preparation

Stock is made by simmering various ingredients in water, including some or all of the following. Stocks can be made using pressure cookers, as cooking time is reduced.


• Leftover cooked meat, such as that remaining on poultry carcasses, is often used with the bones of the bird or joint.
• Fresh meat makes a superior stock and cuts rich in connective tissue such as shin or shoulder of beef or veal are commonly recommended. They can either be used alone or added in lower proportions to the remains of cooked poultry to provide a richer and fresher-tasting stock.
• Quantities recommended are in the ratio of 1 part fresh meat to 2 parts water.
• Pork is considered unsuitable for stock in European cooking due to its greasiness – but was used in earlier periods.
• Mutton was traditionally avoided due to the difficulty of avoiding the strong tallowy taint imparted from the fat.


• Veal, beef, and chicken bones are commonly used. The flavor comes from the cartilage and connective tissue in the bones. Connective tissue has collagen in it, which gets converted into gelatin that thickens the liquid.
• Stock made from bones needs to be simmered for longer than stock made from meat. Pressure cooking methods shorten the time necessary to extract the flavor from the bones.


• A combination of onions, carrots, celery, and sometimes other vegetables are used.
• Often the less desirable parts of the vegetables (such as carrot skins and celery ends) are used since they will not be eaten.

Herbs and spices

• The herbs and spices used to depend on availability and local traditions.

• In classical cuisine, the use of a bouquet garni (or bundle of herbs) consisting of parsley, bay leaves, a sprig of thyme, and possibly other herbs, is common.
• This is placed in a sachet to make it easier to remove once the stock is cooked

Amit Kumar
Amit Kumar
Hii! Welcome to My digital home, I am Amit – an almost no-code generalist, helping businesses with their online presence using WordPress and other tools and simplifying some of their operations with ideas and automation. A psychology and philosophy geek by interest and a graduate in Hospitality Management. I founded hmhelp during college, which got me into WordPress. I am a highly motivated and results-oriented professional with a proven track record of success in the hospitality industry. I’m also a Digital Marketing Enthusiast with significant academic and practical experience managing digital content across multiple platforms. Skilled at SEO optimization, developing digital content for social media platforms, I offer extensive knowledge of multiple software programs, strong attention to detail, and extraordinary communication skills. If you are interested in talking about any of the topics I have mentioned on my website, you are in the right place. You can contact me or learn more about what I do. You can also connect with me on social networks.

Latest Articles


Energy conservation measures for Hotel Industry DO’S AND DONT’S FOOD &...

Organization of Banquet Department

Banquet organization structure             ...

Types of Meringues

There are three types of meringue; their differences lie...

Additives and preservatives used in Ice-cream manufacture

 As ice creams move down the scale from premium,...

Ice Sculptures

Ice Sculptures The Ice sculpture is the highlight of any...

Function of menu

Menu is a very important tool for the operation...

Related Articles


Energy conservation measures for Hotel Industry DO’S AND DONT’S FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT This department consumes approximately 25% of the total energy cost so the opportunities to...

Organization of Banquet Department

Banquet organization structure             ...

Types of Meringues

There are three types of meringue; their differences lie in when and how the sugar is added: French Meringue This uncooked meringue is the one most...